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Pharmacobezoars, bezoars comprised of medications


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I learned something new  "Pharmacobezoars, bezoars comprised of medications"

 

you can read my first run in with this idea if you read this SA thread.  I was looking to understand the how they made effexor time release.  

http://survivingantidepressants.org/index.php?/topic/7129-please-read-this-before-making-liquid-effexor/

 

Seems the more new things they come up with the more new problems they invent for the people taking the drugs.  We already know how acknowledging  the damages caused by their products is  RESISTED... given my digestive issues I am curious about this bit of news I just learned.  If pharmacobezoars were mentioned in the drug mongraph I missed it... so I am will see what is known about this if anything and share it here. 

Seems at this point it is reportedly rare but many things once thought rare are no amazingly common.  I would not be surprised if doctors are looking right at pharmacobezoars every day and missing them as supposedly they are hard to identify and a new drug related problem that is often missed. 

  If you know or find something please add it here.  Pharmacobezoar: an evolving new entity.
Abstract

Pharmacobezoars, bezoars comprised of medications, are unusual entities. Medications reported to cause bezoars include aluminum hydroxide gel, enteric-coated aspirin, sucralfate, guar gum, cholestyramine, enteral feeding formulas, psyllium preparations, nifedipine XL, and meprobamate. They most often occur, as do bezoars of any type, in a background of altered motility or anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract. Bowel hypoactivity, dehydration, and concomitant use of anticholinergics and narcotis appear to contribute to the propensity for bezoar formation by aluminum hydroxide gel and Isocal. The hygroscopic properties of psyllium and guar gum appear to contribute to their propensity to form bezoars. Insolubility of the carrying vehicle of enteric-coated aspirin and nifedipine is the setting in which these medications form bezoars. In contrast to nonmedication bezoars, pharmacobezoars may produce additional symptoms, those related to the release of their active ingredients. In patients with suspected gastrointestinal tract emptying problems, whether esophageal, gastric, small bowel, or colonic, the astute clinician should consider pharmacobezoar in the differential diagnosis.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8590522

  8590522   [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]  

 
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WARNING THIS WILL BE LONG
Had a car accident in 85
Codeine was the pain med when I was release from hosp continuous use till 89
Given PROZAC by a specialist to help with nerve pain in my leg 89-90 not sure which year
Was not told a thing about it being a psych med thought it was a pain killer no info about psych side effects I went nuts had hallucinations. As I had a head injury and was diagnosed with a concussion in 85 I was sent to a head injury clinic in 1990 five years after the accident. I don't think they knew I had been on prozac I did not think it a big deal and never did finish the bottle of pills. I had tests of course lots of them. Was put into a pain clinic and given amitriptyline which stopped the withdrawal but had many side effects. But I could sleep something I had not done in a very long time the pain lessened. My mother got cancer in 94 they switched my meds to Zoloft to help deal with this pressure as I was her main care giver she died in 96. I stopped zoloft in 96 had withdrawal was put on paxil went nutty quit it ct put on resperidol quit it ct had withdrawal was put on Effexor... 2years later celexa was added 20mg then increased to 40mg huge personality change went wild. Did too fast taper off Celexa 05 as I felt unwell for a long time prior... quit Effexor 150mg ct 07 found ****** 8 months into withdrawal learned some things was banned from there in 08 have kept learning since. there is really not enough room here to put my history but I have a lot of opinions about a lot of things especially any of the drugs mentioned above.
One thing I would like to add here is this tidbit ALL OPIATES INCREASE SEROTONIN it is not a huge jump to being in chronic pain to being put on an ssri/snri and opiates will affect your antidepressants and your thinking.

As I do not update much I will put my quit date Nov. 17 2007 I quit Effexor cold turkey. 

http://survivingantidepressants.org/index.php?/topic/1096-introducing-myself-btdt/

There is a crack in everything ..That's how the light gets in :)

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Medication bezoars: a literature review and report of a case.

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

To describe a case of a medication bezoar and to review the clinical presentation, diagnosis, risk factors, pathogenesis, complications, and treatment of medication bezoars.

DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION:

A MEDLINE search (January 1966-December 1997) of the English-language literature pertaining to bezoars was performed. These articles were scanned, and literature specifically discussing medication bezoars was selected. Additionally, the reference sections of pertinent review and case reports were scanned for additional relevant literature.

DATA SYNTHESIS:

Bezoars are concretions of foreign material within the body. In the case of medication bezoars, these concretions occur within the digestive tract and are composed of medications and/or medication vehicles. Rarely, however, is bezoar formation solely due to a medication. In nearly all reported cases the patient had one or more significant risk factors that contributed to bezoar formation. The exact method by which medications bezoars form is dependent on the particular type or combination of medications involved. Bezoar formation may be associated with significant complications for the patient due to the presence of the bezoar and because of the effects of the medication within the bezoar. Treatment of medication bezoars depends largely on the location and the cause of the bezoar.

CONCLUSIONS:

Medication bezoars are a rare but potentially serious complication of medication use in certain patients. These patients often present with signs and symptoms consistent with an obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract and represent an even greater diagnostic challenge due to the rarity of this complication. These patients also face significant complications from both the bezoar and the medication within the bezoar. To date, treatment of medication bezoars involves mainly physical manipulation of the bezoar through lavage, endoscopic removal, or, in most cases, surgical removal.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9762382

WARNING THIS WILL BE LONG
Had a car accident in 85
Codeine was the pain med when I was release from hosp continuous use till 89
Given PROZAC by a specialist to help with nerve pain in my leg 89-90 not sure which year
Was not told a thing about it being a psych med thought it was a pain killer no info about psych side effects I went nuts had hallucinations. As I had a head injury and was diagnosed with a concussion in 85 I was sent to a head injury clinic in 1990 five years after the accident. I don't think they knew I had been on prozac I did not think it a big deal and never did finish the bottle of pills. I had tests of course lots of them. Was put into a pain clinic and given amitriptyline which stopped the withdrawal but had many side effects. But I could sleep something I had not done in a very long time the pain lessened. My mother got cancer in 94 they switched my meds to Zoloft to help deal with this pressure as I was her main care giver she died in 96. I stopped zoloft in 96 had withdrawal was put on paxil went nutty quit it ct put on resperidol quit it ct had withdrawal was put on Effexor... 2years later celexa was added 20mg then increased to 40mg huge personality change went wild. Did too fast taper off Celexa 05 as I felt unwell for a long time prior... quit Effexor 150mg ct 07 found ****** 8 months into withdrawal learned some things was banned from there in 08 have kept learning since. there is really not enough room here to put my history but I have a lot of opinions about a lot of things especially any of the drugs mentioned above.
One thing I would like to add here is this tidbit ALL OPIATES INCREASE SEROTONIN it is not a huge jump to being in chronic pain to being put on an ssri/snri and opiates will affect your antidepressants and your thinking.

As I do not update much I will put my quit date Nov. 17 2007 I quit Effexor cold turkey. 

http://survivingantidepressants.org/index.php?/topic/1096-introducing-myself-btdt/

There is a crack in everything ..That's how the light gets in :)

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Extended-release nifedipine bezoar identified one year after discontinuation.

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

To report a case of tablet impaction of nifedipine extended-release tablets (Procardia XL) discovered one year after discontinuation of the drug in a patient with peptic stricture.

DATA SOURCES:

English-language references identified via a MEDLINE search from 1966 through September 1998 and bibliographic review of pertinent articles.

DATA SYNTHESIS:

Extended-release nifedipine has been associated with the formation of medication bezoars in case reports. Bezoars are concretions of undigested material within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Although they can occur throughout the GI tract, bezoars are most frequently located in the stomach and, rarely, in the duodenum. We report an unusual case of tablet impaction with a gastric outlet obstruction in the duodenal area discovered one year after the patient stopped taking extended-release nifedipine.

CONCLUSIONS:

Extended-release nifedipine is associated with tablet impaction, even long after discontinuing administration. Although rare, clinicians should be aware of this potential problem when prescribing extended-release medications to patients at risk, and should consider this possible etiology when refractory epigastric pain and weight loss occur.

 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10928396

WARNING THIS WILL BE LONG
Had a car accident in 85
Codeine was the pain med when I was release from hosp continuous use till 89
Given PROZAC by a specialist to help with nerve pain in my leg 89-90 not sure which year
Was not told a thing about it being a psych med thought it was a pain killer no info about psych side effects I went nuts had hallucinations. As I had a head injury and was diagnosed with a concussion in 85 I was sent to a head injury clinic in 1990 five years after the accident. I don't think they knew I had been on prozac I did not think it a big deal and never did finish the bottle of pills. I had tests of course lots of them. Was put into a pain clinic and given amitriptyline which stopped the withdrawal but had many side effects. But I could sleep something I had not done in a very long time the pain lessened. My mother got cancer in 94 they switched my meds to Zoloft to help deal with this pressure as I was her main care giver she died in 96. I stopped zoloft in 96 had withdrawal was put on paxil went nutty quit it ct put on resperidol quit it ct had withdrawal was put on Effexor... 2years later celexa was added 20mg then increased to 40mg huge personality change went wild. Did too fast taper off Celexa 05 as I felt unwell for a long time prior... quit Effexor 150mg ct 07 found ****** 8 months into withdrawal learned some things was banned from there in 08 have kept learning since. there is really not enough room here to put my history but I have a lot of opinions about a lot of things especially any of the drugs mentioned above.
One thing I would like to add here is this tidbit ALL OPIATES INCREASE SEROTONIN it is not a huge jump to being in chronic pain to being put on an ssri/snri and opiates will affect your antidepressants and your thinking.

As I do not update much I will put my quit date Nov. 17 2007 I quit Effexor cold turkey. 

http://survivingantidepressants.org/index.php?/topic/1096-introducing-myself-btdt/

There is a crack in everything ..That's how the light gets in :)

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Share on other sites

Bezoar formation requiring endoscopic removal after intentional overdose of extended-release nifedipine.

Abstract

A 61-year-old Caucasian woman was transported to the emergency department after intentionally ingesting several different prescription drugs. She had been found by her husband in an unconscious state with empty bottles of extended-release venlafaxine, extended-release nifedipine, sertraline, and atorvastatin. She was intubated in the emergency department and transferred to the intensive care unit. After 36 hours in the intensive care unit, she was stabilized and brought to a general medical ward. She later developed profound recurrent hypotension with systolic blood pressures ranging from 40-70 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressures of 0-40 mm Hg. She was readmitted to the intensive care unit, where a computed tomography scan revealed a mass in her stomach. A gastroenterology consultation was obtained, and an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) was performed, during which a large drug bezoar was discovered and removed. The drugs were identified as extended-release nifedipine with a few granules of extended-release venlafaxine. Unfortunately, the patient died 3 days after the EGD from multisystem organ failure related to the overdose. Clinicians who encounter drug overdoses should be aware of the possibility of drug bezoar formation and should consider endoscopic removal as a potential treatment option.

PMID:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17125441   17125441   [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

WARNING THIS WILL BE LONG
Had a car accident in 85
Codeine was the pain med when I was release from hosp continuous use till 89
Given PROZAC by a specialist to help with nerve pain in my leg 89-90 not sure which year
Was not told a thing about it being a psych med thought it was a pain killer no info about psych side effects I went nuts had hallucinations. As I had a head injury and was diagnosed with a concussion in 85 I was sent to a head injury clinic in 1990 five years after the accident. I don't think they knew I had been on prozac I did not think it a big deal and never did finish the bottle of pills. I had tests of course lots of them. Was put into a pain clinic and given amitriptyline which stopped the withdrawal but had many side effects. But I could sleep something I had not done in a very long time the pain lessened. My mother got cancer in 94 they switched my meds to Zoloft to help deal with this pressure as I was her main care giver she died in 96. I stopped zoloft in 96 had withdrawal was put on paxil went nutty quit it ct put on resperidol quit it ct had withdrawal was put on Effexor... 2years later celexa was added 20mg then increased to 40mg huge personality change went wild. Did too fast taper off Celexa 05 as I felt unwell for a long time prior... quit Effexor 150mg ct 07 found ****** 8 months into withdrawal learned some things was banned from there in 08 have kept learning since. there is really not enough room here to put my history but I have a lot of opinions about a lot of things especially any of the drugs mentioned above.
One thing I would like to add here is this tidbit ALL OPIATES INCREASE SEROTONIN it is not a huge jump to being in chronic pain to being put on an ssri/snri and opiates will affect your antidepressants and your thinking.

As I do not update much I will put my quit date Nov. 17 2007 I quit Effexor cold turkey. 

http://survivingantidepressants.org/index.php?/topic/1096-introducing-myself-btdt/

There is a crack in everything ..That's how the light gets in :)

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[Pharmacobezoar in a patient operated on for pyloric stenosis].

[Article in Spanish]
Abstract

Bezoars are concretions made up of a variety of partially digested materials seen in several portions of the gastrointestinal tract; they may result in gastrointestinal obstruction. Bezoar types described in the scientific literature include bezoars resulting from drugs. Their development is usually associated with some predisposing risk factor. The case of a patient is described, who was admitted to the hospitaĺs Emergency Department because of a clinical event suggesting a gastrointestinal bleeding episode. After admission, endoscopy demonstrated the presence of a bezoar whose components included a great number of Adalat Oros tablets. A review of the drugs that induced bezoar formation is made, and associated risk factors, formation mechanisms, bezoar appearance, and treatments used are all described.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15012180

WARNING THIS WILL BE LONG
Had a car accident in 85
Codeine was the pain med when I was release from hosp continuous use till 89
Given PROZAC by a specialist to help with nerve pain in my leg 89-90 not sure which year
Was not told a thing about it being a psych med thought it was a pain killer no info about psych side effects I went nuts had hallucinations. As I had a head injury and was diagnosed with a concussion in 85 I was sent to a head injury clinic in 1990 five years after the accident. I don't think they knew I had been on prozac I did not think it a big deal and never did finish the bottle of pills. I had tests of course lots of them. Was put into a pain clinic and given amitriptyline which stopped the withdrawal but had many side effects. But I could sleep something I had not done in a very long time the pain lessened. My mother got cancer in 94 they switched my meds to Zoloft to help deal with this pressure as I was her main care giver she died in 96. I stopped zoloft in 96 had withdrawal was put on paxil went nutty quit it ct put on resperidol quit it ct had withdrawal was put on Effexor... 2years later celexa was added 20mg then increased to 40mg huge personality change went wild. Did too fast taper off Celexa 05 as I felt unwell for a long time prior... quit Effexor 150mg ct 07 found ****** 8 months into withdrawal learned some things was banned from there in 08 have kept learning since. there is really not enough room here to put my history but I have a lot of opinions about a lot of things especially any of the drugs mentioned above.
One thing I would like to add here is this tidbit ALL OPIATES INCREASE SEROTONIN it is not a huge jump to being in chronic pain to being put on an ssri/snri and opiates will affect your antidepressants and your thinking.

As I do not update much I will put my quit date Nov. 17 2007 I quit Effexor cold turkey. 

http://survivingantidepressants.org/index.php?/topic/1096-introducing-myself-btdt/

There is a crack in everything ..That's how the light gets in :)

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[sucralfate and bezoars: data from the system of pharmacologic vigilance and review of the literature].

[Article in French]
Abstract

A bezoar is a mass of undigested material which may form within the lumen of the gut. Some drugs have the potential to form bezoars. In the majority of patients, there is a clear predisposing factor. We present here the data of the French System of Pharmacovigilance on sucralfate and a literature review. Two distinct populations were involved: 16 adults and 5 newborn babies. All were hospitalized in intensive care units. The children were very low birth weight newborn babies, all of whom presented with abdominal distension or acute occlusion. The abdominal radiograph revealed an opaque mass filling the contour of the stomach. Adults presented an oesophageal bezoar around a nasogastric tube. Risk factors for bezoar formation were severe illness, gut hypomotility, dehydration, overdosage, nasogastric tube feeding. Sucralfate is used in the management of peptic ulcer. At pH < 4, extensive polymerization occurs and a sticky viscid gel is formed. In view of this inquiry, the French System of Pharmacovigilance decided to advise caution for adults in intensive care unit being fed by nasogastric tube and contraindication in premature babies and dysmature newborn babies receiving sucralfate.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10216423

WARNING THIS WILL BE LONG
Had a car accident in 85
Codeine was the pain med when I was release from hosp continuous use till 89
Given PROZAC by a specialist to help with nerve pain in my leg 89-90 not sure which year
Was not told a thing about it being a psych med thought it was a pain killer no info about psych side effects I went nuts had hallucinations. As I had a head injury and was diagnosed with a concussion in 85 I was sent to a head injury clinic in 1990 five years after the accident. I don't think they knew I had been on prozac I did not think it a big deal and never did finish the bottle of pills. I had tests of course lots of them. Was put into a pain clinic and given amitriptyline which stopped the withdrawal but had many side effects. But I could sleep something I had not done in a very long time the pain lessened. My mother got cancer in 94 they switched my meds to Zoloft to help deal with this pressure as I was her main care giver she died in 96. I stopped zoloft in 96 had withdrawal was put on paxil went nutty quit it ct put on resperidol quit it ct had withdrawal was put on Effexor... 2years later celexa was added 20mg then increased to 40mg huge personality change went wild. Did too fast taper off Celexa 05 as I felt unwell for a long time prior... quit Effexor 150mg ct 07 found ****** 8 months into withdrawal learned some things was banned from there in 08 have kept learning since. there is really not enough room here to put my history but I have a lot of opinions about a lot of things especially any of the drugs mentioned above.
One thing I would like to add here is this tidbit ALL OPIATES INCREASE SEROTONIN it is not a huge jump to being in chronic pain to being put on an ssri/snri and opiates will affect your antidepressants and your thinking.

As I do not update much I will put my quit date Nov. 17 2007 I quit Effexor cold turkey. 

http://survivingantidepressants.org/index.php?/topic/1096-introducing-myself-btdt/

There is a crack in everything ..That's how the light gets in :)

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Medication bezoar: intestinal obstruction by an isocal bezoar. Case report and review of the literature.

Abstract

Medications may occasionally obstruct the gastrointestinal tract by virtue of their physical mass. Obturative obstruction of the alimentary tract is reportedly caused by an increasing number of medications, including hydroscopic bulk laxatives, cholestyramine, nonabsorbable antacids, and vitamin C tablets. Inspissated Isocal tube feedings caused jejunal obstruction in a postoperative patient. Medication bezoars are a rare cause of intestinal obstruction that may result in significant patient morbidity, including bowel necrosis, perforation, and peritonitis. The radiographic appearance may mimic an abdominal abscess.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6788638

WARNING THIS WILL BE LONG
Had a car accident in 85
Codeine was the pain med when I was release from hosp continuous use till 89
Given PROZAC by a specialist to help with nerve pain in my leg 89-90 not sure which year
Was not told a thing about it being a psych med thought it was a pain killer no info about psych side effects I went nuts had hallucinations. As I had a head injury and was diagnosed with a concussion in 85 I was sent to a head injury clinic in 1990 five years after the accident. I don't think they knew I had been on prozac I did not think it a big deal and never did finish the bottle of pills. I had tests of course lots of them. Was put into a pain clinic and given amitriptyline which stopped the withdrawal but had many side effects. But I could sleep something I had not done in a very long time the pain lessened. My mother got cancer in 94 they switched my meds to Zoloft to help deal with this pressure as I was her main care giver she died in 96. I stopped zoloft in 96 had withdrawal was put on paxil went nutty quit it ct put on resperidol quit it ct had withdrawal was put on Effexor... 2years later celexa was added 20mg then increased to 40mg huge personality change went wild. Did too fast taper off Celexa 05 as I felt unwell for a long time prior... quit Effexor 150mg ct 07 found ****** 8 months into withdrawal learned some things was banned from there in 08 have kept learning since. there is really not enough room here to put my history but I have a lot of opinions about a lot of things especially any of the drugs mentioned above.
One thing I would like to add here is this tidbit ALL OPIATES INCREASE SEROTONIN it is not a huge jump to being in chronic pain to being put on an ssri/snri and opiates will affect your antidepressants and your thinking.

As I do not update much I will put my quit date Nov. 17 2007 I quit Effexor cold turkey. 

http://survivingantidepressants.org/index.php?/topic/1096-introducing-myself-btdt/

There is a crack in everything ..That's how the light gets in :)

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Effexor overdose bezoars 

don't want to post this as I am hoping nobody needs it if you do here is the link

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3151403/

 

Bezors are hard to find and CT scan seems to be the way they are found... sometimes. Scans are generally not done due to the expense. 

WARNING THIS WILL BE LONG
Had a car accident in 85
Codeine was the pain med when I was release from hosp continuous use till 89
Given PROZAC by a specialist to help with nerve pain in my leg 89-90 not sure which year
Was not told a thing about it being a psych med thought it was a pain killer no info about psych side effects I went nuts had hallucinations. As I had a head injury and was diagnosed with a concussion in 85 I was sent to a head injury clinic in 1990 five years after the accident. I don't think they knew I had been on prozac I did not think it a big deal and never did finish the bottle of pills. I had tests of course lots of them. Was put into a pain clinic and given amitriptyline which stopped the withdrawal but had many side effects. But I could sleep something I had not done in a very long time the pain lessened. My mother got cancer in 94 they switched my meds to Zoloft to help deal with this pressure as I was her main care giver she died in 96. I stopped zoloft in 96 had withdrawal was put on paxil went nutty quit it ct put on resperidol quit it ct had withdrawal was put on Effexor... 2years later celexa was added 20mg then increased to 40mg huge personality change went wild. Did too fast taper off Celexa 05 as I felt unwell for a long time prior... quit Effexor 150mg ct 07 found ****** 8 months into withdrawal learned some things was banned from there in 08 have kept learning since. there is really not enough room here to put my history but I have a lot of opinions about a lot of things especially any of the drugs mentioned above.
One thing I would like to add here is this tidbit ALL OPIATES INCREASE SEROTONIN it is not a huge jump to being in chronic pain to being put on an ssri/snri and opiates will affect your antidepressants and your thinking.

As I do not update much I will put my quit date Nov. 17 2007 I quit Effexor cold turkey. 

http://survivingantidepressants.org/index.php?/topic/1096-introducing-myself-btdt/

There is a crack in everything ..That's how the light gets in :)

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Controlled release, extended release, prolonged release, slow release, sustained release, long acting and modified release and their associated abbreviations (CR, XR, PR, SR, LA and MR) are some of the terms applied to medications that have been designed such that the active drug is released slowly and steadily in a predetermined manner over a predetermined period of time [Sansom, 1999; Jayanth et al.2011]. For the purpose of this article the term controlled release and its abbreviation CR will be used throughout

 When the shell housing the active drug does not disintegrate or does not get digested, it is passed out in the stool intact as a ‘ghost pill’

This article goes on to give a list of drugs one person was taking as a ref... this is his list

" including venlafaxine XL 150 mg for at least 7 years and OxyContin (oxycodone time-release formulation; Purdue Pharma L.P., Stamford, CT, USA) 40 mg twice daily during the previous 3 years. Other medications were quetiapine XL 200 mg, pregabalin, bisoprolol, aspirin, simvastatin and metformin"  he was seeing the casting of the medications in his stool is all it says. 

 

The so called ghost pill found in stool is the empty shell with nothing in it according to this article. 

The article does offer a page of how some psych drugs are absorbed or released which ever term you like 

some here may be interested in it

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4110830/table/table1-2042098612474681/

at the time this list was presented Wyeth still owned Effexor and it mode was diffusion ... from what I have read this may have changed after pfiezer took it over. Not sure. 

This is diffusion

Diffusion controlled release

The release of the active drug follows the principle of diffusion, with the flow of a solute (active drug) going from a higher to a lower concentration (GI tract). To achieve this; the active drug is either uniformly embedded in a matrix (monolithic matrix), or is contained in a reservoir (tablet or capsule) surrounded by insoluble polymer which acts as a semipermeable membrane [Wen and Park, 2010]. Different kinds of matrixes and polymers are commercially available for the purpose of CR drug manufacturing [Uhrich et al. 1999Gabor et al. 2010Tu et al. 2010]. Diffusion may use swellable hydrophilic or nonswellable polymers [Gabor et al. 2010]. Swellable polymers rapidly absorb fluids and swell on coming into contact with GI fluids, producing a protective gelatinous membrane around the active drug [Gabor et al. 2010Siegel and Rathbone, 2012]. The surrounding gelatinous layer controls the rate at which water enters its core and the amount of drug being released. In this system, both dissolution and diffusion take place [Sansom, 1999]. Drugs embedded in a matrix may diffuse through the matric pores or matrix material [Siegel and Rathbone, 2012]. This mechanism is suitable for water-soluble drugs. Drugs using this mechanism may or may not have insoluble parts passing out in faeces.

 

There are many other ways to do this which you can read about here

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4110830/

if your at all interested. 

WARNING THIS WILL BE LONG
Had a car accident in 85
Codeine was the pain med when I was release from hosp continuous use till 89
Given PROZAC by a specialist to help with nerve pain in my leg 89-90 not sure which year
Was not told a thing about it being a psych med thought it was a pain killer no info about psych side effects I went nuts had hallucinations. As I had a head injury and was diagnosed with a concussion in 85 I was sent to a head injury clinic in 1990 five years after the accident. I don't think they knew I had been on prozac I did not think it a big deal and never did finish the bottle of pills. I had tests of course lots of them. Was put into a pain clinic and given amitriptyline which stopped the withdrawal but had many side effects. But I could sleep something I had not done in a very long time the pain lessened. My mother got cancer in 94 they switched my meds to Zoloft to help deal with this pressure as I was her main care giver she died in 96. I stopped zoloft in 96 had withdrawal was put on paxil went nutty quit it ct put on resperidol quit it ct had withdrawal was put on Effexor... 2years later celexa was added 20mg then increased to 40mg huge personality change went wild. Did too fast taper off Celexa 05 as I felt unwell for a long time prior... quit Effexor 150mg ct 07 found ****** 8 months into withdrawal learned some things was banned from there in 08 have kept learning since. there is really not enough room here to put my history but I have a lot of opinions about a lot of things especially any of the drugs mentioned above.
One thing I would like to add here is this tidbit ALL OPIATES INCREASE SEROTONIN it is not a huge jump to being in chronic pain to being put on an ssri/snri and opiates will affect your antidepressants and your thinking.

As I do not update much I will put my quit date Nov. 17 2007 I quit Effexor cold turkey. 

http://survivingantidepressants.org/index.php?/topic/1096-introducing-myself-btdt/

There is a crack in everything ..That's how the light gets in :)

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  • 3 months later...

There was some big issue with the time release patent...

""The retail pharmacy claims Wyeth used the fraudulent patents and bruising legal tactics to corner the market on the drug, also known as venlafaxine hydrochloride, after the original patent lapsed."As a result of Wyeth's fraud and other exclusionary conduct, generic versions of Effexor XR were illegally blocked from the marketplace from June 2008 through at least June 2010," according to the lawsuit. "During this period of foreclosure, U.S. retail sales of Effexor XR topped $4.5 billion."The lawsuit seeks class-action status for companies such as Uniondale Chemists that allegedly paid "artificially inflated prices for their extended release venlafaxine hydrochloride requirements."As part of the alleged scheme, Uniondale Chemists claims, Wyeth misrepresented studies by "fraudulently claiming clinical data showed that Wyeth's extended release version of venlafaxine hydrochloride, Effexor XR, reduced the incidence of nausea and vomiting associated with instant release Effexor."The lawsuit also alleges Wyeth lied when it claimed to unexpectedly discover the extended-release formula of the drug, relying on this claim to secure additional patents."The (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) relies completely on the brand name manufacturer's truthfulness about patents' validity and applicability; the FDA has neither the authority nor the resources to check the manufacturer's representations for accuracy or trustworthiness," the lawsuit says.An FDA spokeswoman did not immediately respond to questions."

http://finance.yahoo.com/news/Lawsuit-Wyeth-had-illegal-apf-4182591672.html

 

I was sure I posted how they made E time release.. thought it was here but can't find it. 

 

If you lived in the states and bought Effexor in 2008 -10 there was a class action to get you some money back as it was over price by fraud...

http://www.wexlerwallace.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Effexor-Consolidated-Complaint.pdf

 

I don't know if there was a time limit.. I have not horse in the race.. Canada is not mentioned

WARNING THIS WILL BE LONG
Had a car accident in 85
Codeine was the pain med when I was release from hosp continuous use till 89
Given PROZAC by a specialist to help with nerve pain in my leg 89-90 not sure which year
Was not told a thing about it being a psych med thought it was a pain killer no info about psych side effects I went nuts had hallucinations. As I had a head injury and was diagnosed with a concussion in 85 I was sent to a head injury clinic in 1990 five years after the accident. I don't think they knew I had been on prozac I did not think it a big deal and never did finish the bottle of pills. I had tests of course lots of them. Was put into a pain clinic and given amitriptyline which stopped the withdrawal but had many side effects. But I could sleep something I had not done in a very long time the pain lessened. My mother got cancer in 94 they switched my meds to Zoloft to help deal with this pressure as I was her main care giver she died in 96. I stopped zoloft in 96 had withdrawal was put on paxil went nutty quit it ct put on resperidol quit it ct had withdrawal was put on Effexor... 2years later celexa was added 20mg then increased to 40mg huge personality change went wild. Did too fast taper off Celexa 05 as I felt unwell for a long time prior... quit Effexor 150mg ct 07 found ****** 8 months into withdrawal learned some things was banned from there in 08 have kept learning since. there is really not enough room here to put my history but I have a lot of opinions about a lot of things especially any of the drugs mentioned above.
One thing I would like to add here is this tidbit ALL OPIATES INCREASE SEROTONIN it is not a huge jump to being in chronic pain to being put on an ssri/snri and opiates will affect your antidepressants and your thinking.

As I do not update much I will put my quit date Nov. 17 2007 I quit Effexor cold turkey. 

http://survivingantidepressants.org/index.php?/topic/1096-introducing-myself-btdt/

There is a crack in everything ..That's how the light gets in :)

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here it is

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4110830/table/table1-2042098612474681/

Venlafaxine capsule
Effexor XR Diffusion Encapsulated spheroid Depression Yes Wyeth Pharma ( New Jersey, USA)

The EFEXOR-XR formulation of venlafaxine contains spheroids, which release the drug slowly into the digestive tract. The insoluble portion of these spheroids is eliminated and may be seen in stools.

WARNING THIS WILL BE LONG
Had a car accident in 85
Codeine was the pain med when I was release from hosp continuous use till 89
Given PROZAC by a specialist to help with nerve pain in my leg 89-90 not sure which year
Was not told a thing about it being a psych med thought it was a pain killer no info about psych side effects I went nuts had hallucinations. As I had a head injury and was diagnosed with a concussion in 85 I was sent to a head injury clinic in 1990 five years after the accident. I don't think they knew I had been on prozac I did not think it a big deal and never did finish the bottle of pills. I had tests of course lots of them. Was put into a pain clinic and given amitriptyline which stopped the withdrawal but had many side effects. But I could sleep something I had not done in a very long time the pain lessened. My mother got cancer in 94 they switched my meds to Zoloft to help deal with this pressure as I was her main care giver she died in 96. I stopped zoloft in 96 had withdrawal was put on paxil went nutty quit it ct put on resperidol quit it ct had withdrawal was put on Effexor... 2years later celexa was added 20mg then increased to 40mg huge personality change went wild. Did too fast taper off Celexa 05 as I felt unwell for a long time prior... quit Effexor 150mg ct 07 found ****** 8 months into withdrawal learned some things was banned from there in 08 have kept learning since. there is really not enough room here to put my history but I have a lot of opinions about a lot of things especially any of the drugs mentioned above.
One thing I would like to add here is this tidbit ALL OPIATES INCREASE SEROTONIN it is not a huge jump to being in chronic pain to being put on an ssri/snri and opiates will affect your antidepressants and your thinking.

As I do not update much I will put my quit date Nov. 17 2007 I quit Effexor cold turkey. 

http://survivingantidepressants.org/index.php?/topic/1096-introducing-myself-btdt/

There is a crack in everything ..That's how the light gets in :)

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